steam boilers Safety, section 1
Large steam generating units often employ a safety engineer for boiler safety to:
Work to minimize risks.
Train employees in terms of observing safety principles.
Teach educational tips about safety principles.
Educational tips about
Safety principles in
Choose steam boilers and install them in front of everyone.
It is clear that small units cannot afford to hire such an expert.
But the same theories about safety principles can be spread among people with relatively less cost.
Such a program represents how you can save 100 riyals by spending 10 riyals.
For safety in the boiler, no matter how small the unit is, a notice board should be installed at the workplace.
If the employees of a unit are insured against accidents at work. (In the United States of America, this is required in most states). Insurance companies usually provide excellent publications about safety principles for free.
These are excellent publications about
Boiler safety principles are provided to the unit free of charge.
These publications should be posted on the bulletin board.
For a special unit, a set of related safety principles should be properly framed and installed in a visible place continuously.
Occupational safety and health organization standards about boiler safety
The rules regarding the safety of power plant equipment and its surrounding environment are included in a government regulation entitled “Occupational Safety and Health Organization (OSHA) Standards” (in the United States of America) and the regulations of insurance companies against fire and losses.
Reviewing the mutual effect of factory devices on each other to maintain safety in the boiler
Today, the working method to comply with safety principles in the boiler includes considering the whole system or circuit. And then determining the effect of factors such as the breakdown of a part, or the failure of the operator to react correctly to a special situation on the mentioned system.
The scope of necessary analysis depends on the sensitivity of the unit.
Certainly, in a nuclear power plant, more accurate control and warning devices are needed to inform about a valve not working properly. Also, more equipment is needed compared to the needs of a small industrial unit.
The term “Review of the mutual effect of factory devices on each other in the analysis of the damage effect of a member, in studies related to reliability, has been receiving increasing attention.
Safety in steam boilers, part 2
Large units are mostly controlled through the control room.
This type of guidance relies heavily on accurate control devices and notification systems that inform the control room officials when unusual situations occur. Continuous in-person monitoring of large parts of the power plant has been removed.
It is not possible to consider a notification system for all unusual situations.
As a result, you should not fully trust the guidance of the unit through the control room. Unless this type of guidance is accompanied by face-to-face supervision of the use of various devices at appropriate intervals.
As a result of the experiments, obtained in several nuclear power plants, the following principles regarding the control of the unit through the control room have been obtained.
Control rooms should give normal, limit and out of system conditions.
Control room attendants
The operators of the control room should be able to identify the abnormal state of each of the boiler and boiler safety systems in the circuit. What is the effect of these unusual situations on the safe operation of the boiler?
A high-level warning system should allow the operator to decide on preventive or corrective actions to prevent a dangerous situation from occurring. to force
The sensitive information displayed in the control room should be such that it is possible to read them correctly.
When the occurrence of an unusual condition in the work of a unit endangers a device. Warning systems should warn based on a priority system based on the necessity of the boiler operator’s action.
The general safety rules in the boiler applicable to the operation of the boiler are as follows:
1- To access different parts of the steam boiler, use safe ladders, scaffolds, lifts and cables.
2- Make sure when entering the boiler. that all valves, lines and similar connections related to steam, water, fuel, air and combustion gases are tightly closed and blocked.
3- Use low voltage lamps and connectors with proper protection and insulation.
4- Make sure that the cylinder and furnaces are properly emptied before entering it.
5- Wherever there is a possibility of objects falling, or the possibility of an accident with exposed parts. For example, taps or elbows of pipelines, it is necessary to use safety caps.
6- To prevent skin contact with dangerous contents inside the steam boiler, use special clothes.
Safety in steam boilers, section 3
There are other safety regulations that must be followed.
These regulations are detailed in corporate or government laws and they should be applied to power plant equipment.
For the hydrostatic tests of the steam boiler, suitable supports should be considered to bear the weight of water.
The test pressure and regulations related to the pressure reduction valve, the accuracy of the pressure gauge used. In the test, the aeration of the tank before filling it with water, the suitability of the connected devices to withstand the test pressure should also be considered.
Recording and display devices for boiler safety
In order to maintain safety in the boiler, if the efficiency of using the boiler is to be kept at a high level; The presence of test programs in the unit is necessary, even if a complete set of recording and display devices that enable the most economical operation of the boiler is installed in the unit.
These devices are regulated and reviewed periodically by actual testing.
For some of the characteristics of the unit, measuring devices have not been invented yet. so that the direct reading of that feature is possible;
To create safety in the boiler, it is necessary to use analytical methods to obtain the required information.
Fuel and water tests are examples of methods used in reviewing this group of features.
In small steam units, it is usually sufficient to test each shipment of received fuel.
But in large units that store coal in the open space.
In the same way, it is enough to test the water of the steam boilers of small units once a week.
But in large units that work under very variable conditions, it is necessary that the mentioned test be done at least once a day.
Testing and adjusting pressure gauges and other measuring devices should be done according to a regular schedule.
Daily reports and computer analyzes of boiler safety
The date of the test, the name and family name of the test person should be written on a small card and attached to the device to be recorded for future reference.
Today, daily reports and computer analyzes are used in large boiler and steam boiler systems.
This removes the need to periodically review the information provided by the computer in order to keep the efficiency of the boiler high, especially when there is a conflict between production needs and safe use of the device.
In large units, the department responsible for purchasing the necessary equipment is responsible for this work.
But in small units, the chief engineer of the unit is often required to perform this task